Since there are so many different levels of susceptibility among the organs of the body, another measurement is used to describe the effective dose. There are a variety of detection devices available but they must be within a couple inches of the alpha source with no interferents, including heavy dust or water. Alpha particles can only travel several inches in the air. In many ways, they are like radio waves or ultraviolet light, only with much more energy. Energy with different wave lengths has different applications and effects, and the entire spectrum is typically divided into seven subsections including radio, microwave, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-ray, and gamma ray (see Fig. Further, to account for irradiation to parts of the body, an effective dose (E) is calculated by multiplying H by an organ-specific weighting factor. (rem) The rem is the dose equivalent of the absorbed dose considering the biological efficiency of the radiation, also called quality factor. The basic annual limits for occupational workers is 50 mSv (5 rem) to the whole body, 150 mSv (15 rem) to the lens, and 500 mSv (50 rem) to the hands, skin, and feet. The rem (an acronym for roentgen equivalent man) was the cgs unit of effective dose and was officially replaced by the sievert many years ago.. One rem was a large quantity of radiation, and therefore for practical day to day use the millirem (mrem), representing one-thousandth of a rem… One Gy equals 1 Joule per Kg of matter. The routine inspections will confirm that these activities are being performed according to regulations, license conditions, and recommended best practices. Ultraviolet (UV) light with a wavelength of 315–400 nm (UVA), 280 to 315 nm (UVB), and 10–280 nm (UVC) would normally be absorbed by 98% in the atmosphere's so-called ozone layer, which extends at about 20 miles above sea level.6 However, mostly because of human-made pollution and the resulting increase in local permeability of this protective layer, UV radiation can reach the surface of the skin and unfold its hazardous effects. Although contamination does not usually cause ARS, it can produce chronic illnesses such as cancer. Radiation accidents within the United States should be reported to the federally funded Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS). According to the NCRP, shielding calculations should only be performed by a qualified expert whom they define as a person who is certified by the American Board of Radiology, American Board of Medical Physics, American Board of Health Physics, or Canadian College of Physicists in Medicine. Controlled Unclassified Information Program (CUI). Various governmental agencies control the regulations surrounding the use of radiation in medicine. There are four primary types of radiation: alpha, beta, gamma, and X-ray. Since not all radiation has the same biological effect, the dosage is multiplied by a "quality factor" (Q). A beta-emitting radioactive material is injected intravenously. Stephen M. Milner, Michael J. Feldman, in Total Burn Care (Fourth Edition), 2012, A significant radiation accident is one in which an individual exceeds at least one of the following criteria:6, Whole body doses equal to or exceeding 25 rem (0.25 Sv), Skin doses equal to or exceeding 600 rem (6 Sv), Absorbed dose equal to or greater than 75 rem (0.75 Sv) to other tissues or organs from an external source, Internal contamination equal to or exceeding one-half the maximum permissible body burden (MPBB) as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (this number is different for each radionuclide). For decades, military personnel around the world were trained in nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) or chemical, biological, and radiological (CBR) defense. Radiological events include accidents at nuclear facilities or with radiological materials in transport. The estimated absorbed dose per RF ablation procedure in a high-volume center in the United States was 2.5 REM (, Radiation Safety and Shielding in Radiotherapy, Sonja Dieterich PhD, DABR, ... Jing Zeng MD, DABR, in, The American Journal of Emergency Medicine, Cataract formation, marrow suppression, cognitive impairment, Transient skin erythema, cataract formation, Temporary hair loss, permanent sterility (testes), Prolonged skin erythema, partial permanent hair loss, Permanent sterility (ovaries), pneumonitis, Prolonged skin erythema, skin atrophy, telangiectasia. 15-5). The radiation absorbed dose (rad) is a measure of the effects of radiation on matter, whether biological or otherwise. These particles consist of ejected electrons and can travel several feet. The classification of radiation accident by device for the period 1944 until 2016 is shown in Table 41.2. Alpha radiation is a large particle compared to the other particulate radiological threats. 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